Peringati Hari Lupus se-Dunia, Perempuan Terjangkit Lebih Tinggi

LUPUS merupakan istilah untuk gangguan pada sistem kekebalan tubuh yang banyak menyerang perempuan. Jenis penyakit ini bisa menyasar semua kelompok usian nin paling banyak pada usia produktif.

“Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) atau biasa disebut lupus merupakan penyakit radang kronis disertai gangguan pada sistem kekebalan tubuh sehingga menciptakan antibodi yang dapat mempengaruhi kesehatan tubuh secara keseluruhan,” terang Dokter Spesialis Penyakit Dalam RSUD dr. Iskak Tulungagung, dr. Moh. Jasin, Sp.PD.

Melalui perayaan ini membawa harapan agar orang-orang di dunia lebih sadar dengan penyakit lupus beserta dampaknya. Hari Lupus Sedunia disimbolkan dengan warna ungu.

Pemilihan warna ungu sebagai simbolik dalam perjuangan untuk mengakhiri dampak brutal dari penyakit lupus.

Di Indonesia sendiri berdasarkan (Depkes, 2017) memiliki prevalensi sekitar 1.250.000 orang yang terkena lupus.

Kriteria pada pasien SLE ini berdasarkan hasil pemeriksaan klinis, laboratorium dan menggunakan kriteria American Rheumatisms Association (ARA).

Terdapat 11 kriteria ARA yang meliputi malar rash, discoid rash, photosensitive, Oral ulcers, Arthritis non erosive, Serositis, gangguan ginjal, gangguan neurologis (kejang, psikosis), gangguan hematologi, kelainan imunologis serta Antibodi anti nuclear (ANA) positif.

Lebih lanjut, Jasin mengatakan, apabila terdapat 4 kriteria ARA dari 11 kriteria maka dapat ditegakkan sebagai lupus.

Selain itu, terdapat beberapa faktor resiko dari SLE ini yang mencakup faktor genetik, hormonal dan lingkungan.

Jasin menambahkan, penyakit lupus ini dapat dikategorikan ringan, berat sampai mengancam jiwa.

Untuk penyakit lupus kategori ringan ini bila pasien secara klinis tenang serta fungsi organ stabil atau normal.

Sedangkan lupus kategori sedang apabila pasien menderita nefritis ringan sampai sedang dengan trombosit 20-50x 103/mm3.

Apabila pasien menderita perdarahan paru, pneumonitis, emboli dan infark paru, ruam difus disertai ulkus atau melepuh, koma, stroke dsb, maka dapat dikategorikan sebagai lupus berat.

Meski gejala lupus sangat bervariasi, namun terdapat beberapa gejala yang sering muncul yang meliputi muncul ruam dari batang hidung hingga kedua pipi serta di bagian tubuh lain, ruam kulit bertambah parah dan nyeri, sendi nyeri dan kaku, demam tiba-tiba, sesak napas, nyeri dada, sakit kepala, linglung, daya ingat menurun dan sering merasa kelelahan meski sudah beristirahat.

Meski lupus bukan penyakit menular, penderitanya harus mengikuti saran dan arahan dari dokter dengan beberapa terapi pengobatan yang harus dijalankan agar dapat meminimalisir resiko kerusakan pada organ serta meringankan gejala penyakitnya, pungkasnya. (PKRS/KAR)

LUPUS is a term for disorders of the immune system that affect to many women. This type of disease can get in all age groups, but mostly at the productive age.

“Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) or commonly called lupus is a chronic inflammatory disease accompanied by disorders of the immune system so as to create antibodies that can affect the overall health of the body,” explained the doctor at the dr. Iskak Tulungagung Hospital, dr. Moh. Jasin, Sp.PD.

Through this celebration brings hope that people in the world are more aware of lupus and its effects. World Lupus Day is symbolized by purple. The selection of purple as symbolic in the struggle to end the brutal impact of lupus.

In Indonesia based on (Ministry of Health, 2017) has a prevalence of about 1,250,000 people are affected by lupus.

The criteria in SLE patients are based on the results of clinical, laboratory test and using the criteria of the American Rheumatisms Association (ARA). There are 11 ARA criteria which is include malar rash, discoid rash, photosensitive, Oral ulcers, non erosive arthritis, serositis, kidney disorders, neurological disorders (seizures, psychosis), hematological disorders, immunological disorders and positive anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA).

Furthermore, Jasin said that if there are 4 ARA criteria out of 11 criteria, it can be enforced as lupus.

In addition, there are several risk factors from this SLE that include genetic, hormonal and environmental factors.

Jasin added, lupus can be categorized as mild, severe to life-threatening. For lupus this mild category if the patient is clinically calm and organ function is stable or normal. While lupus is a moderate category if the patient suffers from mild to moderate nephritis with platelets 20-50x 103 / mm3.

If the patient suffers from pulmonary hemorrhage, pneumonitis, embolism and pulmonary infarction, diffuse rash accompanied by ulcers or blisters, coma, stroke etc., then it can be categorized as severe lupus.

Although lupus symptoms vary greatly, there are some symptoms that often appear that include rashes from the nose to both cheeks and on other parts of the body, skin rashes get worse and pain, joint pain and stiffness, sudden fever, shortness of breath, chest pain, headache, daze, memory decreases and often feels exhausted even though they have rested. ”Although lupus is not an infectious disease, sufferers must follow the advice and direction of a doctor with several treatment therapies that must be carried out in order to minimize the risk of damage to organs and relieve symptoms of the disease,” he concluded. (PKRS/KAR/BEL)

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